Ugly Legal Meaning

The repeal of ugly laws followed shortly after the passage of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and Section 504, and the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 prevented any possibility of reinstating ugly laws. In 1975, Marcia Pearce Burgdorf and Robert Burgdorf Jr. wrote in their journal article “A History of Unequal Treatment: The Qualifications of Handicapped Persons as a `Suspect Class` under the Equal Protection Clause” about the unsightly regulation of beggars. [1] [11] In this article, the term “ugly laws” was created and used after being inspired by the title of the newspaper article about the 1974 Omaha arrest. It was an act of intercession. Between 1867 and 1974, various cities in the United States had unsightly beggar ordinances, which, in retrospect, have also been labeled ugly laws. [1] These laws targeted the poor and disabled. For example, in San Francisco, he declared an 1867 law illegal for “any person sick, mutilated, mutilated, or deformed in any way to be an unsightly or disgusting object of exposure to the public.” [2] [1] Exceptions to public exposure were acceptable only when people were protested to illustrate the separation of people with disabilities from able-bodied people and their need for reform. [3]:47 Relationships, reproductive rights, and the individual right to life were also influenced by ugly laws and the philosophy of charity during this period. Policymakers discussed the possibility of preventing people with disabilities from marrying and having children. Policymakers have suggested that this should prevent the children their union produces from tarnishing society`s reservoir of heredity. Charity must “do what it can to curb the growing curse of racial degeneration.” Those involved in nonprofit politics have suggested that while euthanasia would be a liberation for the person with their disability, it also violates the moral principles taught by religion.

[3]: 48–50 [18]:30 Racism has also played a role in the introduction and enforcement of ugly laws. In the 1860s, Chinese immigrants and their descendants were quarantined en masse in San Francisco to prevent the spread of disease and epidemics. [3]: 28 John Belluso`s play The Body of Bourne has a scene in which Randolph Bourne was confronted in Chicago because of an ugly law. [3]:12 Although this is a fictitious event, the introduction of the legislation highlights the impact on disability history. [3]: 12 The true objectives of the ugly law were defined less by their physical impairments than by their economic and social status. Chicago laws similar to those passed in 1889 in Denver, Colorado and Lincoln, Nebraska. From 1881 to 1890, ugly legislation was passed in Omaha, Nebraska. [10] Moreover, ugly laws were triggered by the Panic of 1893. These included Columbus, Ohio in 1894 and in 1891 for the entire state of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania was different because it contained language that applies to both cognitive and physical disabilities.

[3]:3 An attempt was made to introduce ugly laws in New York, but failed in 1895. Early models in New York were similar to those in Pennsylvania in that they included cognitive disabilities. Reno, Nevada, introduced an ordinance before 1905. [3]: 3 Los Angeles, California, attempted to pass an ordinance in 1913. Historian Brad Byrom noted that ugly laws were enforced unevenly and rarely and ignored by police. [1] The first recorded arrest related to ugly laws was Martin Oates in San Francisco, California, in July 1867. Oates was a former Union soldier during the American Civil War. [3]:2 In 1902, a horrific law similar to that of the United States was passed in the city of Manila, Philippines. [3]:5 This law was similar to those of the United States in that it was written in English and at a time when Manila was under American control, and contained the usual expression “no person who is diseased”. It was one of the first regulations drafted under American control.

Other ordinances dealt with hygiene reform and considered beggars unsightly in the context of this opinion. [3]: 5 It is no coincidence that the ugly law came at a time when many people were worried about wandering vagrants in the country. While one of the biggest complaints about vagrants was that they could work but didn`t, Coco writes that they were often discussed in the same breath as “crippled beggars.” For example, the Board of Public Charities has described most people living in Illinois poor people`s homes as “old, frail, infirm, lazy, and wasteful.” Here, people who could not find work because of a disability were grouped with the “lazy” as part of the unworthy poor. British academic Stuart Murray argues that the “civil contagion” of the spread of ugly laws is particularly American: “Disability is disturbing, and it disrupts the sense of self in American contexts in a particular way. [3]:4 In 1881, the Chicago City Council, apparently with little debate or controversy, passed a law excluding all “sick, mutilated, mutilated” people from the city`s public streets. This was just one of many “ugly laws” passed in different parts of the country in the second half of the nineteenth century, as Adrienne Phelps Coco explains. Such legal discrimination against persons with disabilities may shock us today, but the context in which the law was adopted and applied also reflects trends that still resonate. There was a link between ugly laws and “public health management systems” such as segregation, eugenics, institutionalization. [3]: 15 [16][17][18]: 30 The last ugly laws were repealed in 1974.

[11] Omaha, Nebraska, repealed its horrific law in 1967, but had one person arrested for violating the disgraceful beggar ordinance documented in 1974. [1] Columbus, Ohio repealed its law in 1972. Chicago was the last to repeal its hideous law in 1974. [12] The term “ugly laws” was coined in the mid-1970s by critics Marcia Pearce Burgdorf and Robert Burgdorf, Jr. [3]:9 In 1980, during a European tour, Victoria Ann Lewis, an artist at the Lilith Women`s Theatre in San Francisco, gave a monologue about the difficulty for people with disabilities to find work because of the social idea that people with disabilities should hide or be in the circus. Lewis believed he had been denied admission to a drama school in New York because of his lameness. She noticed that they were trying to persuade her to take a stand behind the scenes. She thought it was due to ugly laws and that it couldn`t happen in some cities. [3]: 12–13 The $1 fine equals more than $20 in 2018. In most cities, penalties for violating an ugly law ranged from jail to fines of up to $50 for each offense.

It could be argued that if one object was ugly and another even uglier, they are ugly because they participate in a form. Coco writes that none of this reflects prejudice against the entire group of people we might call disabled today. Those who were employed and did not receive public support were not considered bound by the ugly law. For nineteenth-century employers, physical disability does not necessarily characterize a person as a less skilled worker. In fact, workplace accidents were so common that an injury such as a missing finger could be a sign of an experienced worker. Similarly, disabled veterans of the Civil War were generally deemed worthy of public assistance, which eventually allowed them to receive a federal pension.